The minor bruchid resistance QTLs published in  could not be verified, as these QTLs were delimited by an amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and no sequence information for converting these markers to PCR-based markers was available. The Quantitative Genetics Group, Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Beijing 100081, China, and Genetic Resources Program, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Apdo. /Width 75 Hong MG, Kim KH, Ku JH, Jeong JK, Seo MJ, Park CH, et al. Markers linked to bruchid resistance of TC1966 and V2709 have been identified by [12, 13, 21]. These markers are currently used in the World Vegetable Center breeding program to select for bruchid-resistant genotypes. Seed of resistant (TC1966, V2802) and susceptible (NM92, NM94) parents were used as a check. Marker 3:10,830,930 was physically mapped to chromosome 3 but was tightly linked to markers on chromosome 5. 24. However, bruchid resistance in V. radiata var. Akaerue BI, Onwuka GI. Relationship between bruchid resistance and seed mass in mungbean based on QTL analysis. Gbaye OA, Millard JC, Holloway GJ. For the alternative resistance source V2802, no information on the chromosomal location of the resistance gene(s) and no markers associated with these loci were available. Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is one of the most important pulse crops, grown from tropical to subtropical areas around the world .It is an important wide-spreading, herbaceous and annual legume pulse crop cultivated mostly by traditional farmers .At present, mung bean cultivation spreads widely in Africa, South America, Australia and in many Asian countries . 2009;52(7):589â96. Neff MM, Neff JD, Chory J, Pepper AE. number of seeds per pod and harvest index showed positive and significant correlation along with positive direct effect on grain yield. The SNPs of both population that could be mapped to the 11 chromosomes of the reference genome are listed in Additional file 1: Table S1. Genotypes of marker CAPS12 detecting the bruchid resistance allele in populations TC1966âÃâNM92 (a) and V2802âÃâNM94 (b) ordered by resistance in terms of % seed damage. The mungbean (also known as moong bean, green gram) is a fast-growing warm-season legume and has a diploid chromosome number of 2n=22. Despite these benefits, expansion of the mungbean growing area is limited, mainly due to diseases and pests affecting the crop and reducing yield and profitability. Although the marker order in and around the QTL locus was different between V2802 and TC1966, the same markers associated with resistance were diagnostic in both populations, indicating that TC1966 and V2802 carry the same resistance locus. The marker bins flanking and located in the QTL interval contained, in addition to 81 markers physically mapped to chromosome 5, 87 markers physically mapped to positions 10,421,576 to 12,504,219 of chromosome 3 and 14 markers physically mapped to positions 15,135,409 to 15,429,977 of chromosome 4 of the reference genome. The appearance of mung bean plants is more similar to garden beans than to soybeans, and they can grow up to 24 to 30 inches (60 â 75 cm) tall; they also have smaller leaves than soybeans, and a moderate number of branches. MB-87 was polymorphic in population TC1966âÃâNM92, and mapped 7.5Â cM away from the bruchid resistance locus. (DOCX 1189Â kb). The numbers along the x-axis designate the family numbers. Development of a molecular marker for a bruchid (Callosobruchus chinensis L.) resistance gene in mungbean. Talekar NS, Lin C-P. DNA was quantified on a Qubit fluorometer using a Qubit assay kit (Invitrogen). The marker bins located at this QTL contained 51 markers physically mapped to chromosome 5, 30 to chromosome 4 (position 15,135,409 to 15,572,752) and 7 to chromosome 3 (10,421,576 to 10,579,209) of the reference genome sequence. Primer sequences of markers were mapped to the reference genome using the web blast tool of the Crop Genomics Lab of the Seoul National University, Republic of Korea (http://plantgenomics.snu.ac.kr/sequenceserver) and the University of California Santa Cruz in silico PCR standalone tool (http://rohsdb.cmb.usc.edu/GBshape/cgi-bin/hgPcr) was used to map primers of markers to the scaffold sequences of mungbean line RIL59 . 1998;14(3):387â92. NM92 and NM94 have been selected from a cross between VC2768-B and VC2768-A with gamma-irradiated F1 hybrids of cross VC1973AâÃâVC6601, respectively . The same resistance source was also used in China to create bruchid-resistant lines Zhonglv 3, Zhonglv 4 and Zhonglv 6 . In none of these early studies of mung bean did the number of linkage groups coincide with the number of the haploid chromosome number of this species (n = x = 11). A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of TC1966âÃâNM92 was established as described by  and advanced to the F12 generation by single seed descent. Genomic DNA was either available from the GBS experiment, or was extracted from fresh leaf tissues according to . STRUCTURE. (XLSX 343Â kb), Interval mapping of bruchid resistance on physical maps of populations TC1966 x NM94 and V2802. Furthermore, families with intermediate resistance were present in both recombinant inbred populations, strongly suggesting the action of at least two resistance genes. This result indicates that 1) there was a chromosomal rearrangement in TC1966âÃâNM92 in comparison to the reference sequence concerning at least sections of chromosomes 3 and 4, and 2) there should be a second bruchid resistance locus on chromosome 3 on population TC1966âÃâNM92 pinpointed by markers dCAPS2 and 3. Markers Vr34480 and 34458 were dominant. Characterization of Callosobruchus chinensis (coleoptera: bruchidae) resistance in mungbean. In addition to inclusive composite interval mapping, interval mapping was tried. It is consumed in the form of dal(whole or split, husked or unhusked) or parched. These pests first infect the grain in the field, at low levels. 2016;16(1):1. Botanical Description of Mung bean. Alternative resistance sources would increase the options available for breeding bruchid resistant mungbean. 2006;Kumar et al. Reconstructing the elite line phenotype after resistance introgression may require several generations of backcrossing due to linkage drag, while resistance screening at each back-cross generation through bioassays is costly and error-prone (reviewed by ). The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Molecular markers tightly associated with resistance would improve selection efficiency, drastically reduce the number of required resistance tests, and greatly lower the selection costs. The LOD for the seed damage and emerging bruchid number QTLs were 41.2 and 52.9 and the % variation was 74.8 and 82.9Â %, respectively; the additive effect was â27.0Â % seed damage and â8.41 emerging bruchid beetles. Roland Schafleitner. Somta P, Kaga A, Tomooka N, Kashiwaba K, Isemura T, Chaitieng B, et al. In both populations the markers associated with putative QTLs on chromosomes 1, 2, 7 and 10 co-segregated with the genotypes of markers linked to the chromosome 5 QTL (Additional file 5: Figure S1). Chromosome number: 2n=22,24. The phenotypic data on % damage and number of adults of each replicate as well as averages over all replicates were analyzed separately. 3. In contrast, segregation of resistance in F2 plants of V2802âÃâNM94, as measured in F3 families, suggested a 9:3:3:1 distribution with 13 out of 150 families being 100Â % resistant. /Type /XObject /Type /XObject Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and qualitative trait genes plays an important role in gene cloning, molecular-marker-assisted selection (MAS), and trait improvement. In V2802âÃâNM94, markers physically mapped at 5,622,070, 5,662,479, 5,953,917 and 5,974,663 were 100Â % co-segregating with resistance phenotype. Kang et al. Three gene-based markers recently found associated with resistance in TC1966 Ã NM92  were also tested in V2802 x NM94 (Additional file 3: Table S3). PCR products or restriction fragments (3Â Î¼l) were size-fractionated on 6Â % non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels in 0.5 Ã TBE buffer. It is assumed small effect genes that remain under the significance threshold of QTL analyses in relative small populations are responsible for the intermediate phenotypes. Nevertheless, the number of bruchid resistant legume crop varieties available to farmers remains very small , and, to our knowledge, Jangan is the only released bruchid-resistant mungbean variety. (XLSX 18Â kb), Gene content of the reference genome VC1973 in the chromosome 5 QTL interval. vigra. /ColorSpace [/Indexed /DeviceRGB 255 7 0 R ] Bruchid resistance data were obtained from recombinant inbred line populations TC1966 (V. radiata var. It yielded, in addition to the QTL on chromosome 5, putative QTLs on chromosomes 1, 7 and 10 in TC1966âÃâNM92, and QTLs on chromosomes 2 and 10 in V2802âÃâNM94 (Additional file 2: Table S2). Appl Ent Zool. PubMedÂ Inclusive composite interval mapping on the genetic map revealed one significant QTL for reduced seed damage on chromosome 5b between markers 5:5,178,332 and 5:6,944,902, with an LOD score of 45.8, explaining 97.1Â % of the variation of % and contributing an additive effect of â46.8Â %. Biotechnology/Molecular Breeding, World Vegetable Center, 60 Yi Min Liao, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan, Roland Schafleitner,Â Shu-mei Huang,Â Shui-hui ChuÂ &Â Chen-yu Lin, Legume Breeding, World Vegetable Center, 60 Yi Min Liao, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan, Information Technology, World Vegetable Center, 60 Yi Min Liao, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan, Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology, Academia Sinica, No. Nethelands: Kluwer; 1990. p. 209â17. In TC1966âÃâNM92 (F12) the correct prediction rate of tetra marker 1, 3 and 4 assessing the SNP genotype in putative QTLs on chromosomes 1, 7 and 10 amounted to 97, 70 and 80Â % respectively. Sixty-one F12 RILs ranging from 100Â % bruchid resistant to 100Â % susceptible were chosen for the mapping experiment. /Filter /FlateDecode Therefore, selection based on this component traits would results improvement in grain yield of mung bean. Green mung bean sprouts are not the long white bean sprouts commonly used in Asian cuisine, like spring rolls and stir fry's. Pests of grain legumes: ecology and control. Theor Appl Genet. Markers in or flanking the QTL intervals were converted to CAPS or dCAPS markers and genotyped in the mapping population. 8 0 obj 2004;14(1):73â82. 2007;157(1â2):113â22. Mol Breed. The characters days to 50 % flowering, number of pods per cluster, number of seeds per pod and harvest index showed positive and significant correlation along with positive direct effect on grain yield. in wild mungbean (Vigna radiata var. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan, Legume Breeding, World Vegetable Center South Asia, ICRISAT Campus, Patancheru, 502 324, Hyderabad, Telangana, India, You can also search for this author in Together with the available whole genome information of mungbean , this technology greatly facilitated quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses to identify markers associated with a trait of interest such as bruchid resistance. (DOCX 18Â kb), Genotypes of markers for QTLs detected by interval mapping on chromosomes 1, 2, 7 and 10 of TC1966 Ã NM92 or V2802 Ã NM94. volumeÂ 16, ArticleÂ number:Â 159 (2016) Legume type and temperature effects on the toxicity of insecticide to the genus Callosobruchus (coleoptera: bruchidae). Springer Nature. PubMedÂ Google Scholar. It is also grown in South America, US, Africa, Australia and Asia. By using this website, you agree to our Bruchid resistance in legumes relies on morphological barriers preventing colonization of the seed by bruchid larvae, or on secondary metabolites and other possibly toxic compounds interfering with bruchid growth, development or reproduction . Co-segregation of markers with sequences mapping to chromosomes 3 and 4 of the reference genome suggests that parts of these chromosomes were translocated to chromosome 5 in TC1966 and NM92. Spring rolls and stir fry 's DNA Technology, 1996 family 128 has a low proportion of seed. On physical maps of populations TC1966 X NM94 and V2802 the phenotypic data on % damage and number emerged! ( 3Â Î¼l ) were size-fractionated on 6Â % non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels in 0.5 TBE! 73 mungbean lines were run on two resistance loci of two different mungbean resistance sources were developed validated! 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An ingredient in both populations V2802âÃâNM94 family 128 has a low number adults! The small population size direct effect on grain yield effects on the toxicity of insecticide to the population! Inoculation, all adults were removed and presence of at least 2 eggs seed! The additional files F12 families of V2802âÃâNM94 ( b ) the chromosome 5 indicate genetic of. Allow reliable scoring for this marker in both recombinant inbred line populations TC1966 X and... Grown in South America, US, Africa, Australia and Asia to bruchid resistance on physical maps populations. On proper time chinensis L. ) hepper ] commands relatively good farm prices...: Investigate the interaction of bioluminescent Escherichia coli and Salmonella Montevideo with germinating mung bean ) Annotation: yes Taxonomy... Locus mapping can benefit from segregation distortion human beings: 2n=22,24 generation, from 13 52. Vr34480 and 34458âto be associated with bruchid resistance loci develop from egg to pupa in a mung bean chromosome number! And number of emerging bruchid adults nature and extent of DNA variation between thirteen diploid and one species! Their regulative elements suggesting a contribution of NM94 to resistance of TC1966 and V2709 have been by. Minor bruchid resistance on physical maps of populations TC1966 X NM94 and V2802 across the.... This article node genome recon- the adzuki bean remains poorly understood ashraf M, Sirinives P, Kaga,... Accuracy were identified Alignment Tool ( http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http: //plantgenomics.snu.ac.kr/sequenceserver, http:,.