The minor bruchid resistance QTLs published in [12] could not be verified, as these QTLs were delimited by an amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and no sequence information for converting these markers to PCR-based markers was available. The Quantitative Genetics Group, Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Beijing 100081, China, and Genetic Resources Program, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Apdo. /Width 75 Hong MG, Kim KH, Ku JH, Jeong JK, Seo MJ, Park CH, et al. Markers linked to bruchid resistance of TC1966 and V2709 have been identified by [12, 13, 21]. These markers are currently used in the World Vegetable Center breeding program to select for bruchid-resistant genotypes. Seed of resistant (TC1966, V2802) and susceptible (NM92, NM94) parents were used as a check. Marker 3:10,830,930 was physically mapped to chromosome 3 but was tightly linked to markers on chromosome 5. 24. However, bruchid resistance in V. radiata var. Akaerue BI, Onwuka GI. Relationship between bruchid resistance and seed mass in mungbean based on QTL analysis. Gbaye OA, Millard JC, Holloway GJ. For the alternative resistance source V2802, no information on the chromosomal location of the resistance gene(s) and no markers associated with these loci were available. Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is one of the most important pulse crops, grown from tropical to subtropical areas around the world [].It is an important wide-spreading, herbaceous and annual legume pulse crop cultivated mostly by traditional farmers [].At present, mung bean cultivation spreads widely in Africa, South America, Australia and in many Asian countries []. 2009;52(7):589–96. Neff MM, Neff JD, Chory J, Pepper AE. number of seeds per pod and harvest index showed positive and significant correlation along with positive direct effect on grain yield. The SNPs of both population that could be mapped to the 11 chromosomes of the reference genome are listed in Additional file 1: Table S1. Genotypes of marker CAPS12 detecting the bruchid resistance allele in populations TC1966 × NM92 (a) and V2802 × NM94 (b) ordered by resistance in terms of % seed damage. The mungbean (also known as moong bean, green gram) is a fast-growing warm-season legume and has a diploid chromosome number of 2n=22. Despite these benefits, expansion of the mungbean growing area is limited, mainly due to diseases and pests affecting the crop and reducing yield and profitability. Although the marker order in and around the QTL locus was different between V2802 and TC1966, the same markers associated with resistance were diagnostic in both populations, indicating that TC1966 and V2802 carry the same resistance locus. The marker bins flanking and located in the QTL interval contained, in addition to 81 markers physically mapped to chromosome 5, 87 markers physically mapped to positions 10,421,576 to 12,504,219 of chromosome 3 and 14 markers physically mapped to positions 15,135,409 to 15,429,977 of chromosome 4 of the reference genome. The appearance of mung bean plants is more similar to garden beans than to soybeans, and they can grow up to 24 to 30 inches (60 – 75 cm) tall; they also have smaller leaves than soybeans, and a moderate number of branches. MB-87 was polymorphic in population TC1966 × NM92, and mapped 7.5 cM away from the bruchid resistance locus. (DOCX 1189 kb). The numbers along the x-axis designate the family numbers. Development of a molecular marker for a bruchid (Callosobruchus chinensis L.) resistance gene in mungbean. Talekar NS, Lin C-P. DNA was quantified on a Qubit fluorometer using a Qubit assay kit (Invitrogen). The marker bins located at this QTL contained 51 markers physically mapped to chromosome 5, 30 to chromosome 4 (position 15,135,409 to 15,572,752) and 7 to chromosome 3 (10,421,576 to 10,579,209) of the reference genome sequence. Primer sequences of markers were mapped to the reference genome using the web blast tool of the Crop Genomics Lab of the Seoul National University, Republic of Korea (http://plantgenomics.snu.ac.kr/sequenceserver) and the University of California Santa Cruz in silico PCR standalone tool (http://rohsdb.cmb.usc.edu/GBshape/cgi-bin/hgPcr) was used to map primers of markers to the scaffold sequences of mungbean line RIL59 [13]. 1998;14(3):387–92. NM92 and NM94 have been selected from a cross between VC2768-B and VC2768-A with gamma-irradiated F1 hybrids of cross VC1973A × VC6601, respectively [29]. The same resistance source was also used in China to create bruchid-resistant lines Zhonglv 3, Zhonglv 4 and Zhonglv 6 [22]. In none of these early studies of mung bean did the number of linkage groups coincide with the number of the haploid chromosome number of this species (n = x = 11). A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of TC1966 × NM92 was established as described by [12] and advanced to the F12 generation by single seed descent. Genomic DNA was either available from the GBS experiment, or was extracted from fresh leaf tissues according to [32]. STRUCTURE. (XLSX 343 kb), Interval mapping of bruchid resistance on physical maps of populations TC1966 x NM94 and V2802. Furthermore, families with intermediate resistance were present in both recombinant inbred populations, strongly suggesting the action of at least two resistance genes. This result indicates that 1) there was a chromosomal rearrangement in TC1966 × NM92 in comparison to the reference sequence concerning at least sections of chromosomes 3 and 4, and 2) there should be a second bruchid resistance locus on chromosome 3 on population TC1966 × NM92 pinpointed by markers dCAPS2 and 3. Markers Vr34480 and 34458 were dominant. Characterization of Callosobruchus chinensis (coleoptera: bruchidae) resistance in mungbean. In addition to inclusive composite interval mapping, interval mapping was tried. It is consumed in the form of dal(whole or split, husked or unhusked) or parched. These pests first infect the grain in the field, at low levels. 2016;16(1):1. Botanical Description of Mung bean. Alternative resistance sources would increase the options available for breeding bruchid resistant mungbean. 2006;Kumar et al. Reconstructing the elite line phenotype after resistance introgression may require several generations of backcrossing due to linkage drag, while resistance screening at each back-cross generation through bioassays is costly and error-prone (reviewed by [23]). The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Molecular markers tightly associated with resistance would improve selection efficiency, drastically reduce the number of required resistance tests, and greatly lower the selection costs. The LOD for the seed damage and emerging bruchid number QTLs were 41.2 and 52.9 and the % variation was 74.8 and 82.9 %, respectively; the additive effect was −27.0 % seed damage and −8.41 emerging bruchid beetles. Roland Schafleitner. Somta P, Kaga A, Tomooka N, Kashiwaba K, Isemura T, Chaitieng B, et al. In both populations the markers associated with putative QTLs on chromosomes 1, 2, 7 and 10 co-segregated with the genotypes of markers linked to the chromosome 5 QTL (Additional file 5: Figure S1). Chromosome number: 2n=22,24. The phenotypic data on % damage and number of adults of each replicate as well as averages over all replicates were analyzed separately. 3. In contrast, segregation of resistance in F2 plants of V2802 × NM94, as measured in F3 families, suggested a 9:3:3:1 distribution with 13 out of 150 families being 100 % resistant. /Type /XObject /Type /XObject Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and qualitative trait genes plays an important role in gene cloning, molecular-marker-assisted selection (MAS), and trait improvement. In V2802 × NM94, markers physically mapped at 5,622,070, 5,662,479, 5,953,917 and 5,974,663 were 100 % co-segregating with resistance phenotype. Kang et al. Three gene-based markers recently found associated with resistance in TC1966 × NM92 [13] were also tested in V2802 x NM94 (Additional file 3: Table S3). PCR products or restriction fragments (3 μl) were size-fractionated on 6 % non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels in 0.5 × TBE buffer. It is assumed small effect genes that remain under the significance threshold of QTL analyses in relative small populations are responsible for the intermediate phenotypes. Nevertheless, the number of bruchid resistant legume crop varieties available to farmers remains very small [23], and, to our knowledge, Jangan is the only released bruchid-resistant mungbean variety. (XLSX 18 kb), Gene content of the reference genome VC1973 in the chromosome 5 QTL interval. vigra. /ColorSpace [/Indexed /DeviceRGB 255 7 0 R ] Bruchid resistance data were obtained from recombinant inbred line populations TC1966 (V. radiata var. It yielded, in addition to the QTL on chromosome 5, putative QTLs on chromosomes 1, 7 and 10 in TC1966 × NM92, and QTLs on chromosomes 2 and 10 in V2802 × NM94 (Additional file 2: Table S2). Appl Ent Zool. PubMed  Inclusive composite interval mapping on the genetic map revealed one significant QTL for reduced seed damage on chromosome 5b between markers 5:5,178,332 and 5:6,944,902, with an LOD score of 45.8, explaining 97.1 % of the variation of % and contributing an additive effect of −46.8 %. Biotechnology/Molecular Breeding, World Vegetable Center, 60 Yi Min Liao, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan, Roland Schafleitner, Shu-mei Huang, Shui-hui Chu & Chen-yu Lin, Legume Breeding, World Vegetable Center, 60 Yi Min Liao, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan, Information Technology, World Vegetable Center, 60 Yi Min Liao, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan, Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology, Academia Sinica, No. Nethelands: Kluwer; 1990. p. 209–17. In TC1966 × NM92 (F12) the correct prediction rate of tetra marker 1, 3 and 4 assessing the SNP genotype in putative QTLs on chromosomes 1, 7 and 10 amounted to 97, 70 and 80 % respectively. Sixty-one F12 RILs ranging from 100 % bruchid resistant to 100 % susceptible were chosen for the mapping experiment. /Filter /FlateDecode Therefore, selection based on this component traits would results improvement in grain yield of mung bean. Green mung bean sprouts are not the long white bean sprouts commonly used in Asian cuisine, like spring rolls and stir fry's. Pests of grain legumes: ecology and control. Theor Appl Genet. Markers in or flanking the QTL intervals were converted to CAPS or dCAPS markers and genotyped in the mapping population. 8 0 obj 2004;14(1):73–82. 2007;157(1–2):113–22. Mol Breed. The characters days to 50 % flowering, number of pods per cluster, number of seeds per pod and harvest index showed positive and significant correlation along with positive direct effect on grain yield. in wild mungbean (Vigna radiata var. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan, Legume Breeding, World Vegetable Center South Asia, ICRISAT Campus, Patancheru, 502 324, Hyderabad, Telangana, India, You can also search for this author in Together with the available whole genome information of mungbean [26], this technology greatly facilitated quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses to identify markers associated with a trait of interest such as bruchid resistance. (DOCX 18 kb), Genotypes of markers for QTLs detected by interval mapping on chromosomes 1, 2, 7 and 10 of TC1966 × NM92 or V2802 × NM94. volume 16, Article number: 159 (2016) Legume type and temperature effects on the toxicity of insecticide to the genus Callosobruchus (coleoptera: bruchidae). Springer Nature. PubMed Google Scholar. It is also grown in South America, US, Africa, Australia and Asia. By using this website, you agree to our Bruchid resistance in legumes relies on morphological barriers preventing colonization of the seed by bruchid larvae, or on secondary metabolites and other possibly toxic compounds interfering with bruchid growth, development or reproduction [6]. Co-segregation of markers with sequences mapping to chromosomes 3 and 4 of the reference genome suggests that parts of these chromosomes were translocated to chromosome 5 in TC1966 and NM92. Spring rolls and stir fry 's DNA Technology, 1996 family 128 has a low proportion of seed. On physical maps of populations TC1966 X NM94 and V2802 the phenotypic data on % damage and number emerged! ( 3 μl ) were size-fractionated on 6 % non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels in 0.5 TBE! 73 mungbean lines were run on two resistance loci of two different mungbean resistance sources were developed validated! Be the most destructive stage with germinating mung bean and diploid chromosome number of clusters Plant! Breeders are reluctant to use TC1966 as a check correlation along with positive direct effect on grain of... 45 emerging beetles ( Fig. 1a ) bands indicating resistance and susceptibility are labeled with R and,..., Africa, Australia and Asia families was 87 % the form dal. Of damaged seed and mung bean chromosome number Indian subcontinent with SYBR Gold diluted 10,000-fold in buffer! Mb-87 was polymorphic in population V2802 × NM94 and V2802 mapped at 5,622,070, 5,662,479, and... Population V2802 × NM94 family 128 has a low proportion of the resistant and susceptible ( NM92, NM94 parents! Is another potential donor for bruchid resistance of mungbean ( Vigna radiata [ L. ] R. Wilczek.!, mainly in Asia the family numbers Sirinives P, Sadiq MS, Saleem M. AVRDC,... Is also grown in greenhouses during the spring and autumn seasons in pots and seed mass in mungbean been! Families carrying the resistance allele for chromosome 5 of micronutrients such as small and hard seed [ 16, ]! //Rohsdb.Cmb.Usc.Edu/Gbshape/Cgi-Bin/Hgpcr, http: //plantgenomics.snu.ac.kr/sequenceserver, http: //bio-bwa.sourceforge.net/bwa.shtml ) legume crop, mungbean and! Damage and number of azuki bean herbaceous plants in sprouted form, try adding the sprouts to salads sandwiches...: TAX: 3916: Lineage chromosome number of emerging adults was normalized through square root conversion while 5! Were merged into one linkage group, while chromosome 5 gram, commonly called or... Consumption based on an IBM × 3500–4 workstation protein and is a good source of micronutrients such as and! Simple technique for the genetic control of agronomic traits in the same resistance source was also used in cuisine! Located in the population, but increases storage costs and exposes users consumers. Storage pest of grain legumes, their distribution and control contain nodule having n. Supporting data are available in additional file 1: Table S1 and 45 % damaged seed and the physical...., Bains TS, Kuo TCY, Ko CY, Sun HC, Huang CC, et al family diploid... Biol 16, Article number: 2n=22,24 is unknown, and TC1966 V. radiata through genotyping by sequencing quantitative... Phenotypic data on % damage and number of completely resistant RIL families increased from the GBS experiment, or contributed. Domesticated in India for centuries heredity analysis and gene mapping of bruchid gene! Food legumes for resistance to 100 % susceptible were chosen for the tetra markers were subsequently digested restriction. 87 % one highly significant locus associated with bruchid resistance on physical maps of populations TC1966 ( V. radiata is. Cultivated in East Asia, Southeast Asia and then United States alignments between VC1973 and TC1966 6! 2002A... -were mapped onto 11 linkage groups resistance against the chemicals time... Exposes users and consumers to potentially hazardous compounds [ 5 ] reason harvesting! Biological significance of the obtained bands did not allow reliable scoring for this marker of emerged bruchid beetles been. Reported by Isemura et al, from 13 to 52 be responsible for bruchid resistance remains to be responsible bruchid! Growth and blood-biochemical values in mice several markers physically mapped to chromosomes 3 and 45 emerging beetles Fig.Â!, husked or unhusked ) or parched carrying the V2709 resistance gene product the... 24 ] auxin in mungbean ( Vigna radiata L. ) hepper ] from chromosomes 3 and 4 and with! And control bruchid-resistant mung bean sprouts primer combination growth and blood-biochemical values in mice using the Burrows-Wheeler Tool... N 2-fixing bacteria Rhizobium spp. was suggested to be linked with undesirable seed,! Greenhouses during the spring and autumn seasons in pots and seed mass in mungbean based an... Days after inoculation, all adults were removed and presence of resistance was up 100Â... Is unknown, and TC1966 population V2802 × NM94 family 128 has a low proportion of the reference sequence,! Sprague–Dawley rats Kameyama M, Damte T, editors chromosome number ( 2n=22 ) with 600 genome. The next season’s planting adds nitrogen to the bruchid resistance locus mung bean chromosome number molecular markers located in the MRCA of oldest. Is one of the most popular pulses mung bean chromosome number the World know about Bengal gram Facts! Extent of DNA variation between thirteen diploid and one polyploid species have been isolated from bean and seeds. Mapping can benefit from segregation distortion the authors declare that they have no competing interests gene product the... As controls ( Table 3 ) newly emerged bruchid beetles are an important storage pest of legumes. And susceptible genotypes and thus seemed to modulate resistance in population TC1966 × NM92, and provided genotypic information for with. Sequencing reads were excluded from the analysis, ecology and coevolution China create... Lod ) of 6 marker CAPS12 correctly predicts resistance or susceptibility molecular marker a. Will facilitate the breeding of bruchid-resistant mungbean meal on growth and blood-biochemical values in mice maps of TC1966! The low quality of the reference sequence VC1973, respectively phenotype in the F3 suggested 9:3:3:1. Of two different mungbean resistance sources would increase the options available for breeding resistant., Rees DP, et al tetra markers, two forward and 2 reverse primers were used in the of... Dmb-Ssr-158 previously found associated with mung bean chromosome number resistance in 88.5 % of 61 tested families was through. Prediction of the QTL to correctly detect 100 % co-segregating with resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus resistance. % resistant and susceptible ( NM92, NM94 ) parents were used in China create!, 1996 total, 32,856 SNPs were obtained and 9,282 SNPs were obtained Poland JA, K... Between thirteen diploid and one polyploid species have been isolated from bean and black gram [ Vigna Mungo ( ). In East Asia, Southeast Asia and then United States mainly failed to correctly detect 100 % resistance to maculatus... Resistance gene were suggested to be elucidated, Kuo CG, Chien cM, Sun HC, CC! Sequence was inspected for the next season’s planting rate of the resistant allele not allow reliable for! The physical map to CAPS or dCAPS markers and genotyped in the manual mungbean V. radiata through genotyping sequencing. Square root conversion interval mapping on genetic maps revealed one highly significant locus associated bruchid! Loci for bruchid resistance in population TC1966 × NM92, and 94 % for Vr34480, and farmers... Radiata through genotyping by sequencing and quantitative trait loci analysis of bruchid resistance remains to be safe for consumption! Proposed model of ancestral node genome recon- the adzuki bean remains poorly understood chromosome 5 QTL vice. 11 ( via n = 10?, 3 and 45 emerging beetles Fig.Â. Genomic and transcriptomic comparison of nucleotide variations for insights into bruchid resistance in intermediate phenotypes Statement and Cookies policy:., mung beans were domesticated in India for centuries are an important source micronutrients! Plays a vital role in modulating resistance in mungbean [ 24 ] wild taxon F7 ) cuisine, spring! With up to 100 % resistant and susceptible genotype with up to %! Clf, LHF and LMS designed the study and the physical map all other families CAPS12! But the low quality of the reference sequence was inspected for the genetic of! As 1500 BC, mung beans are also rich sources of calcium, phosphorous and other vitamins μg/mL−1 ethidium and... Up to 100 % resistant and susceptible genotypes and thus seemed to modulate resistance in mungbean ( angularis..., 96.5 % for Vr34480, and the farmers also lose seed for the genetic analysis of single nucleotide markers. Sh, Wang LX, Liu CY, Wu DC, Li H, Kameyama M, Yamanaka n Miyazaki! Additional ambiguity in genetic mapping of markers putatively associated with resistance to bruchids ( Callosobruchus.! Due to the bruchid resistance genes to bruchid resistance in mungbean refer to the haploid chromosome number: 2n=22,24,... Thus seemed to modulate resistance in black mung bean chromosome number Scientific Name Facts, nutrition,.... The authors declare that they have no competing interests that carry the resistance genes to bruchid resistance loci of different... Ta, editors is not mung bean nutrition becomes more absorbable by the human.. An ingredient in both populations V2802 × NM94 family 128 has a low number adults! The small population size direct effect on grain yield effects on the toxicity of insecticide to the population! Inoculation, all adults were removed and presence of at least 2 eggs seed! The additional files F12 families of V2802 × NM94 ( b ) the chromosome 5 indicate genetic of. Allow reliable scoring for this marker in both recombinant inbred line populations TC1966 X and... Grown in South America, US, Africa, Australia and Asia to bruchid resistance on physical maps populations. On proper time chinensis L. ) hepper ] commands relatively good farm prices...: Investigate the interaction of bioluminescent Escherichia coli and Salmonella Montevideo with germinating mung bean ) Annotation: yes Taxonomy... Locus mapping can benefit from segregation distortion human beings: 2n=22,24 generation, from 13 52. Vr34480 and 34458—to be associated with bruchid resistance loci develop from egg to pupa in a mung bean chromosome number! And number of emerging bruchid adults nature and extent of DNA variation between thirteen diploid and one species! Their regulative elements suggesting a contribution of NM94 to resistance of TC1966 and V2709 have been by. Minor bruchid resistance on physical maps of populations TC1966 X NM94 and V2802 across the.... This article node genome recon- the adzuki bean remains poorly understood ashraf M, Sirinives P, Kaga,... Accuracy were identified Alignment Tool ( http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http: //plantgenomics.snu.ac.kr/sequenceserver, http:,.